The following statements reflect our results collected in years of scientific development series for a trouble-free electron flow behavior within electrically conductive materials.
They reflect exclusively our own experience of the individual facts without any claim to completeness, general validity or correctness.
For a better general understanding, the findings of our research are presented in a highly simplified way below:
In order to recognize the essential advantage of the ATOMIC BONDING technology compared to established processes, some background knowledge is required about the manufacture of the wires that are used as conductor material in the audio sector.
To manufacture the conductor material in most audio cables, thick copper or silver strands are repeatedly drawn through so-called drawing dies until the wires are thin enough for further use. Every drawing process means enormous mechanical stress, which causes the crystalline grain structure of the wires to disintegrate into many crystals. In a sense, the audio signals have to find their way through many of these grain structures. The flow through the grain boundaries from grain to grain creates an enormous resistance potential every time, which is known to cause slowed signal transport.
The more complex casting process is therefore often used for higher-quality audio cables. Here, liquid copper or silver is continuously poured into molds, which results in longer grain structures. In the even more complex monocrystalline OCC or UPOCC (Ultra-Pure Ohno Continuous Casting) process, the molds are even heated and slowly cooled to prevent the material from solidifying too quickly. This process was developed by Prof. Ohno in the 1980s for industry so that fewer cracks occur in the sheet metal when the copper strands are rolled out
The SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING follows a completely different approach:
To easily get the idea of the innovative development approach ATOMIC BONDING, simply envision a conducting wire as a pipe filled with ice cubes, whereby the ice cubes symbolically illustrate the inner grain structure of the wire.
Since long-chain metal structures are quite sensitive and easily disintegrate again after the manufacturing process, e.g. due to vibrations and bending processes, ATOMIC BONDING is a technologically extremely complex process which does not aim at bonding individual ice cubes to form a closed, long-chain monostructure, but on the contrary at crushing the cubes. This results in the smallest ice structure components, which can subsequently be compressed into a stable, homogeneous ice mass with very high cohesive forces in the tube.
A compacted, merged ice block has a closured, extremely stable structure - without gaps. This constitutes the basis for a pure and perfect pulse sequence, for a true and accurate signal transmission.
Um elektrische Kurzschlüsse zwischen den Drähten zu verhindern, müssen diese isoliert werden. Das Isoliationsmaterial, auch Dielektrikum genannt, hat einen enormen Einfluss auf die Übertragungsgüte der Audiokabel. Reine Luft ist theoretisch das beste Dielektrikum, isoliert aber nicht. Bei Kabeln, die im Audiobereich z.B. mit einer Luft- bzw. AIR-Isolierung vermarktet werden, werden die einzelnen Leiterdrähte jedoch mit einer isolierenden Lackschicht versehen, welche deutlich schlechtere Dielektrizitätswerte als z.B. PTFE aufweist. Darüber hinaus wird diese Isolationsschicht oft mit strukturschädigenden Hochtemperatuprozessen aufgebracht, welche die Güte der Materialstruktur des Leiters häufig negativ beeinflussen. Dies ist bei SCHNERZINGER nicht der Fall.
SCHNERZINGER verwendet als Dielektrikum ein luftgefülltes Material in Kombination mit einem High Tech Verfahren, das unglaubliche dielektrische und klangliche Eigenschaften aufweist und für die überragenden Übertragungseigenschaften des SCHNERZINGER Leitermaterials besser geeignet ist als herkömmliche künstliche und auch natürliche Materialien wie z.B. PTFE, FEP, Baumwolle, Leinen, Seide und selbst reine Luft nur 2.ter Sieger sein lässt.
Our test runs utilizing various isolators – starting with best polyethylene PTFE, FEP, across foamed material, natural fabric, like unbleached cotton or silk up to extremely expensive and exotic approaches with costly inert gas and specifically deployed battery voltage - confirm the enormous importance of the often underestimated dielectric.
No approach satisfactorily dissolves the conflict of high isolation at one hand and minimal buffer capability on the other hand, without limiting the performance potential of the SCHNERZINGER CONDUCTOR.
A time consuming production process, DIELECTRIC CHARGING, counteracting the adherence ("parking") of the electrical charge at the dielectric, provided SCHNERZINGER the crucial progress and breakthrough.
This conditioning directly works against the buffer effect, thus providing a time correct and full speed signal flow, indispensable for an unimpaired reproduction quality. Compared to DIELECTRIC CHARGING even the operation without any dielectrics, therefore wires surrounded with pure air, will lose out sonically!
For a basic understanding of this innovative process imagine a road with many intersections. You reach a considerable progress to an unobstructed traffic flow not via refinement of the pavement, but by reducing the number of intersections.
The dielectric significantly affects the performance potential. An ideal dielectric should isolate individual strands at the best, though having no capacity to buffer charge carrier.
As an illustration you may imagine, that discrete signals flowing in a wire will be attracted by the dielectric medium, parking there, and be carried away with subsequent signals.
SCHNERZINGER research shows that this effect results in a slowed down, time-delayed electron flow, counteracting the crucial target of time correct and integrated signal processing.
Therefore an ideal isolation material is a dielectric without both attractive and buffer effect; a requirement profile, many manufacturers work on with major effort.
In theory electrical signal propagates in vacuum with the speed of light (c). Cable connection limits the speed, copper conductor for example to about 9/10 of the speed of light. The ration of actual speed to speed of light is known as speed factor VOP (Velocity Propagation Factor). This number describes the transmission speed of a material compared to the speed of light in vacuum in percent.
Here even foamed PTFE reaches 85% only.
Geschäumtes PTFE 85%
SKIN EFFECT- solid conductor, litz wire, foil, hollow conductor
Another performance relevant factor is the so called skin effect. A vastly simplified explanation: High frequencies flow near surface, but middle and low frequencies flow oriented toward the center of the conductor.
For a nearly lossless transport of high frequencies, often flat wire resp. foil conductor, hollow conductor or litz wire (often several distinct isolated strands with very small width) are disposed.
These constructions– having a large surface and a small core portion - favor the transport of high frequencies; but from our experience just this characteristic complicates the desired uniform transmission of low, mid and high frequencies. However or because of that, at first these constructions are often perceived as being more open and having with a higher resolution. In our book for a time correct, natural and not artificially accentuated presentation of the upper spectrum it’s of elementary importance, that all frequencies will be transported holistically.
A few of these cable designs also tend to higher capacitance, whereon certain equipment combinations respond with unpredictable performance.
A performance displaced to higher frequencies may be perceived – as mentioned above – as more dynamic and three-dimensional and having higher resolution, but from our experience this is accountable for the so-called hyper hi-fi sound; soon the listener will be stimulated to yet another compensating action and so forth.
The special surface blooming BETTER SKIN technology, within the scope of SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING, provides for an almost even flow of all frequencies, thus combining the benefits of various designs, without accepting their downsides.
SCHNERZINGER does not make use of cryogenically treatments.
Cryogenic processes used in the metal industry for decades have been marketed in the audio domain for some time now. The material to be treated is cooled down in professional, computer - controlled cryo - facilities in definite intervals to about -150 to -196°C and lower, staying at the trough, to subsequently raise the temperature again. In doing so nitrogen or even deeper cooling substances are used.
In our opinion the performance of these quite cheap cryo treatments shows an adequate price / value ratio, but as our test runs show, these treatments exploit only a fraction of the really attainable potential; they also seem to diminish over time.
We definitely advise against the common method of simply dipping the materials into a nitrogen filled container. Our experience shows that the material structure may break over time by such an „extreme chilling“; thus after an initial improvement the sound characteristic may harden more and more.
Yes, unless error-compensating products block the way to a higher quality level.
An example from real life:
Mr. Müller buys a CD player and an integrated amplifier, cabling them with the enclosed cables. After a while, his audio dealer gives him higher-quality cables to improve his audio system. He tests them on the CD player and chooses the best cable for him. Afterwards he continues to test cables, this time on the integrated amplifier and again he decides for the best cable for him. At a later date, he then tests an objectively higher quality cable but he is disappointed. On the CD player the cable is too shrill and too dull on the integrated amplifier. He feels confirmed that he has made the best choice with his cables. How can this happen?
When he had changed the accessory cable from the CD player against the higher-quality one which had become his favorite, the accessory cable of the integrated amplifier still had been in his audio system. As accessory cables usually do not have any protection against interference, interfering fields pass unhindered into the audio devices via these cables. For this reason, Mr. Müller decided on the first cable for a cable that dampens the unpleasant high-frequency range caused by the electrical interfering fields. For the second cable test, the first cable already was in the audio system and dampened the overtone spectrum. So Mr. Müller then chose a second cable that emphasizes the high-frequencies to counteract the already damped overtone spectrum. With this error compensating starting point the higher quality cable cannot convince at first, due to the lack of compensation. Thus the potential of objectively better products will be misjudged.
This is a typical example of error compensation often used with audio cables. Error compensation may work quite satisfactorily to some extent, but a single error-compensating component in an audio system, by its limiting or emphasizing factor, may block the way of outstanding products to a much higher quality level.
This case study of error compensation analogously applies to the use of supposedly sound-enhancing accessories and also when replacing devices. Our trained distributors help you to identify the flaws of the audio system.
In the audio domain, it is often attempted to use faulty components to compensate for other errors.
From experience we know, that deficit compensating solutions generally lead to short term contentment only; followed by the demand for yet another change of high end products for another assumed optimization attempt and so on.
As a consequence only a fraction of the complete collection of music sounds fine, which usually will be excused with poor recording quality. So Hi-fi freaks customarily switch forth and back between those music titles that sound excellent on their specific music system.
Mostly high grade audio signal connections will be designed via clever cable parts matching and optimization (conductor material, dielectric, geometry etc.). In this process the designer often tries to mutually compensate deficiencies of distinct components.
Within SCHNERZINGER development series we e. g. harmonically balanced an aggressive or less expressive sonic character of inadequate materials or basic construction with clever actions (mixture of different conductor material / alloying, specific geometry, ferrite core, lacquer coating etc.). We even could design a unique sound, with similar effects like turning the amps treble, mid or bass control.
If cleverly used, this may be appealing for some time. Unfortunately according to our findings this method gets in the way of a sustained performance improvement – the full speed and time correct signal transport of all frequencies.
For better understanding think of the reproduction of a drumhead strike. The speaker reproduced information should ideally have the same amount of energy with the same time lapse as the original drumhead strike. In our tests the so-called ‚balancing‘ invariably induce inhibited electron flow. Thus the speaker cones decelerate lagged, having further oscillations, thus adding energy to the original information.
This additional energy may fill or cover underexposed resp. aggressive areas; bass seems more punchy, midrange more present or highs brighter and superficially more resolving.
In case of cancellation effects such an intended phase shift may also withdraw energy. Energy may be withdrawn from an otherwise thickened bass reproduction and thus sound wiry. Also to an insufficiently trained listener soundstage may superficially appear to be „improved“.
Imagine the orchestra semicircle: When e. g. the depth shrinks, spatial information gets more compact and flat. Thus the middle line appears more up front and more present to the untrained listener. A voice can move forward, appearing more three dimensional and physical. Often a better product will be rated worse in relation because of inappropriate pieces of music or judgment practices (e. g. less complex pieces of music, instruments/voices recorded on a single layer but added with artificial ambience, or focus on one voice or one instrument).
For an authentic, long range enthralling reproduction quality, all single parts of information of the original composition must pass the transmission and be reproduced bundled in exactly the same way as captured during the recording – not cut into pieces, not dispersed, with the correct volume, in the correct order and above all in time correct sequence..
Full speed, isochronal and interfering fields adjusted signal transport of all frequencies is key – manipulative actions tear apart the information flow.
SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING and SCHNERZINGER CABLE PROTECTION were designed to completely resolve all problem areas of the electrical cable connection, to avoid limiting effects of compensating actions.
Reverberation, acoustic absorption, acoustic shadow, signal transit time and directional sensitivity of the outer ear enable three dimensional hearing. Our brain utilizes the differential delay between both ears.
The following calculation sample illustrates, how fast and precise resp. fast a reproduction audio system has to work, in order to exactly transmit soundstage information:
Sound propagates in air with 340 m/s, the head diameter is app. 17 cm. If the sonic source drifts 3 degrees right of the center, the differential delay between right and left ear is only app. 30µs.
Be aware: A nerve impulse is app. 100 times longer.
Imagine the symphony orchestra semicircle filled with instruments, you then realize the requirements for an audio reproduction system, to enable positioning of distinct instruments.
Therefore a precise, concurrent and full speed information transport is indispensable for a true three dimensional reproduction of instruments and artists.
Often even experts are not aware that just cable connections badly scatter information transport, thus underrating the importance of audio connections. Unfortunately the imperfection of common cables is that high, that actual cable quality significance for overall performance will not be caught. Thus many listeners are unsettled.
SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING opens the gate to a pristine, full speed and time correct transport of electrical information, whose performance impact is far beyond familiar benchmarks.
The large equipment pool of top class devices permits us to advance to thresholds, where no deficit compensation of flawed components but innovative solutions arise. Longtime experience shows, that deficit compensation actions will not guide to long term contentment.
Deficit compensating actions remove music’s unrivaled authenticity, thus leading to short term contentment only, followed by yet another experiment with putative “better” products.
Extensive investment in top class reference equipment is de facto absolutely indispensable for an in truth inspection of our research findings.
The performance impact of SCHNERZINGER products is exceptional - even in inexpensive but carefully selected system combinations..
Silver has the best conductivity of all metals. Very pure silver is significantly more expensive than high-purity copper. For this reason, silver is usually processed only to a certified purity of 4N (99.99% purity). Copper is reasonably priced up to a certified purity of 7N (99.99999% purity).
Comparing inferior silver with high-purity copper, the performance of copper is generally superior, since inferior silver tends to produce a vitreous, tiring signal transmission in the high-frequency range.
However, comparing elaborately prepared monocrystalline OCC silver or even more elaborate processed SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING silver with highly pure monocrystalline OCC copper, the superiority of the conductivity of silver over copper is unmistakable.
However, comparing elaborately prepared monocrystalline OCC silver or even more elaborate processed SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING silver with highly pure monocrystalline OCC copper, the superiority of the conductivity of silver over copper is unmistakable.
Our conclusion: Not the conductor material itself, but its processed crystalline structure is sound-determining.
It is the property of silver, but not a quality defect, to tarnish in a harsh climate. For performance reasons, SCHNERZINGER does not use protective means that slows down the startup. Although tarnished silver still has outstanding conductivity, and for this reason, silver-plated contact surfaces are used in the industrial sector, SCHNERZINGER recommends cleaning the contact surfaces once or twice a year with a good contact agent without tarnish protection. The contact agent should not contain tarnish protection or alcohol.
To ensure maximum performance, this recommendation applies to all contact surfaces - including gold-plated surfaces.
In order to prevent unnecessary interruptions of the signal transport, SCHNERZINGER waives the use of cable lugs and banana plugs, because any interruption or coupling of the wires of the cable to another material would mean a hurdle for the signal transport.
Therefore, SCHNERZINGER instead chooses to connect the wires of the cable directly to the terminal of the loudspeaker. The continuous 4 connecting wires represent only a part of the total cross-section of the speaker cable.
Another advantage: a star-shaped wiring is possible with Bi-Wiring connections, so that the otherwise necessary use of signal breaking wire bridges can be waived. If the speaker terminal absolutely requires lugs or banana plugs, the speaker cables can be equipped with upon request.
Our research shows, that the parts performance potential is primarily determined by the crystalline structure of the deployed material rather than by the material itself. Performance deficits because of a non-optimum crystalline material structure of a connector plug may be compensated via clever actions.
With many connector plugs in the audio domain a layer of gold, silver, rhodium, palladium etc. will be added to the conducting material. This improves electrical contact and - via the distinct character of the particular plating - it furthermore allows for compensation of deficits.
But we strive for the solution, not just a compensation of a problem, so we employ connector plugs that are adjusted to the fabric of the SCHNERZINGER CONDUCTOR via the complex process ATOMIC BONDING. We disassemble all plugs into their individual parts and replace the contact pins by ATOMIC BONDING formatted pins. To perfectly protect the contact pins against interfering fields and to establish double operational reliability, the plug receives a two-shelled housing. To reduce contact resistance, after assembly plugs and conductor together will be ATOMIC BONDING processed once again.
Compared to the complexity and effect of these actions the significance of the original material characteristic is secondary.
The decision in favor of the now employed connector plugs was done after a multitude of comparisons utilizing the best respected plugs and sockets of the world market.
Price and reputation of the tested devices were of minor importance, as the costs of ATOMIC BONDING by far exceed the costs of expensive plugs.
We explicitly indicate, that - because of the structural adjustment of plugs and conductor material - any back fitting to other plugs will drastically degrade sound quality, thus irreparably destroy the SCHNERZINGER original connection.
The requirements for fulfilling the safety regulations and standards for power products are increasing worldwide and are constantly changing. The country-specific technical approvals that arise each time are usually very complex and extremely expensive.
For this reason, SCHNERZINGER has decided to source its power plugs and sockets from a manufacturer who specializes in the production of audiophile products that meet the respective country-specific standards.
The search for a suitable partner turned out to be difficult, because most manufacturers do not use pure silver or copper, but only phosphorus, bronze or beryllium copper as the basic material for the contacts of the power plugs and sockets, because pure silver or copper mostly turns out to be too soft for the required contact pressure.
For an optimal result, however, SCHNERZINGER needs pure silver or copper as the starting material for the ATOMIC BONDING formatting processes.
Finally, SCHNERZINGER found a manufacturer who succeeded in permanently realizing the required contact pressure with contact pins made of pure copper. However, this manufacturer only produces its contact pins of this quality in the variants rhodium-plated, silver-plated or gold-plated.
SCHNERZINGER opted for the gold-plated version because it showed the best results in the test series after applying the ATOMIC BONDING formatting processes that are decisive for sound quality and used by SCHNERZINGER for all conductive materials.
By intensifying the ATOMIC BONDING treatment processes, it was ultimately possible to achieve a material quality that corresponds to that of the previously used connectors.
Bedingt durch die zielgerichteten mechanischen Herstellungs- und komplexen Formatierungsprozesse des ATOMIC BONDING besitzen alle SCHNERZINGER Kabel eine eindeutig definierte „Laufrichtung“, d.h. eine für den elektrischen Signaltransport optimierte Sender-zu-Empfänger-Orientierung für klanglich herausragende Ergebnisse.
This optimized condition of the SCHNERZINGER cables manifests itself on micromolecular (crystalline structure and genesis of the conductor) as well as on macrostructural level (construction, layering, geometry)
For the hifi-user the correct alignment and running direction of the cable is clearly marked and recognizable by the reading direction of the SCHNERZINGER logos attached on each cable. For optimal results it is mandatory to connect the cables corresponding to signal flow and running direction.
PHASE L (Left) or PHASE R (Right)?
SCHNERZINGER power cables feature - besides the running direction - yet another orientation criterion: The selection of the position of the phase conductor in the cable itself. The current flow to the consumer (HiFi component) should be in the same running direction and with formatting of the cable and not against this optimization.
The Phase (phase conductor or L for "line conductor") is the current-carrying supply conductor which carries the mains-current to the socket and from there on into the consumer (HiFi component). The neutral conductor (neutral conductor or N for "neutral) carries the current from the consumer back to the mains. A protective conductor (grounding, abbreviation PE for "protective earth") conducts potential body currents to earth.
SCHNERZINGER power cables can be built and ordered in two options and with a defined phase-carrying conductor strain Phase L (Left) or Phase R (Right) to achieve the best possible results with the connected HiFi audio device:
DEFINED PHASE CONDUCTOR INSIDE THE SCHNERZINGER POWER CORD
Since many HiFi manufacturers define the optimum pole for the phase-carrying conductor at the respective mains connection socket for the best audiophile operation of their devices - it can also be defined from here for the SCHNERZINGER power cable at which pole of the device socket the phase-carrying conductor of the cable should "arrive" from the mains (phase L = "arriving" at the pole pin for phase L or alternatively as phase R = "arriving" at the pole for neutral conductor N).
The continuous phase conductor within the cable is identified by SCHNERZINGER by a marking (silver dot) on the corresponding connector pole of both cable ends plugs.
To determine the applied phase in the socket itself, for example a commercially available voltage tester can be used (phase out). Afterwards the phase conductor on the socket outlet should be marked for quick identification.
This step is not necessary for sockets with reverse polarity protection, e.g. in the USA (US-NEMA), where only one suitable plug-in direction is possible and the position of the phase-carrying conductor on the socket is thus clearly defined.
Phased out Connection of the power connection and correct selection or assignment of the position of the phase-carrying conductor in the power cable (either phase L or phase R) in relation to the device connection ensure the maximum performance of SCHNERZINGER power cables.
GRAIN STRUCTURE – the problem of conducting materials
Conventional untreated conductor material consists of many short crystalline grain structures, which furthermore conditional of manufacturing are laying in an inappropriate assembly. So to some extend the information has to find its diffuse way through many grain structures. Flowing through the grain boundary junctions from grain to grain implies an enormous resistance potential und thus causes a slowed down signal transmission. In addition information transmission virtually swirls in the grain boundary voids, so tones belonging together are time delayed and torn apart. Above all grain boundary voids allow deformations of the grain structure. This in turn may result in grain contact points, whose resonances may distort the information.
ALLOYING – error compensation of insufficient conductor material grade
Before SCHNERZINGER had developed ATOMIC BONDING, we very long experimented with countless various alloying (composition of different metals) to find the best conductor material.
The SCHNERZINGER development findings confirmed our initial guesswork that electrons virtually “swirl” in the grain boundary voids of the crystalline metal structure (gaps), thus tones belonging together will be torn apart and distorted.
Attempts to sort of add copper/ gold/ bronze/ palladium/ aluminum etc. to „fill“ the gaps of inadequate silver structures in order to damp the disharmonious tonal spectrum, indeed seemed to improve the turbulence and resonance characteristic, but:
The diverging „transmission speeds“ of distinct metals at first glance always were appealing to some extent, but tonally colored and definitely a limiting compromise, getting in the way of a further-reaching, full speed and most notably synchronized information transmission – the ideal of a pristine pulse sequence.
Imagine a sprinter, who runs 100m by 10m turns on rubber and 10m turns on asphalt. He will lose his synchronicity and slows down.
Physically an alloying reduces the conductivity of pure metal and sort of "damps" a better transmission capability. Like a dimmer shades the straining spectrum of colors of a cold neon tube – at the expense of the light output; by reducing conductivity the disharmonic tone color of an inadequately conditioned metal structure can be damped.
(in particular silver, because of its enormous conductivity, points out deficits of conditioning)
This way deficits of a suboptimal material structure may be covered - but this is not the SCHNERZINGER way.
From our findings better conductivity of pure metal in comparison to best alloy invariably leads to an improved transmission quality, except when:
A - conditioning of the crystalline structure is insufficient
B - shortcomings of other cable elements prohibit better sound
C - higher conductivity carves out shortcomings of other cable elements more explicitly
To degrade the enormous conductivity of silver by proportionate addition of gold/copper/palladium/aluminum etc, to damp the dissonant tonal spectrum of an insufficiently conditioned crystalline structure, does not match our idea of an optimum solution.
For us, such a compromise represents no proper approach - in 2003 this perception laid the foundation for the design of ATOMIC BONDING.
Electrical conductivity of elements (top 25 at 20°C, Siemens/(m . 106)):
GEOMETRY - twisted, braided or parallel constructions
The effect of electromagnetic interfering fields on electron flow is significant. Interfering fields are almost everywhere, on one hand infiltrating from outside into the cable connection and on the other hand originating within the cable itself. For the crucial even flow-through an extremely balanced and primarily constant electromagnetic field in between and around the conductors is elementary.
By manual work we manufactured and tested far more than 1000 prototypes – not computer simulated applications; innumerable listening sessions definitely proved:
Electromagnetic suboptimal constructions, responsible for a limited electron flow, may balance an aggressive or less expressive tonal characteristics of an inadequate basic construction (or sometimes even obtain a certain tonal characteristic); but this in fact blocks the way to a further-reaching phase stable reproduction quality.
Cable geometry must be mechanically stable; establishing a constant, homogeneous electromagnetic field in between and around the conductors, and concurrently protect signal flow from emerging interfering fields.
Therefore it’s common, to counteract these problems of unfortunately mutual interaction with complex stranding and binding techniques.Häufig bemüht man sich deshalb, durch aufwändige Verseilungs- und Flechttechniken den Problemen dieser leider wechselseitigen Beeinflussung entgegenzuwirken.
Twisted constructions lessen interference liability, and typically lead to a mostly desired lower inductivity. But as soon as current flows through a lead, a distinct electromagnetic field will be induced. With twisted leads, the electromagnetic fields of the distinct strands are closely and large-scale adjacent, acting upon each other, thus limiting electron flow; which is why often solid conductor instead of litz wire is used.Braided constructions typically lesson interference liability also, but accept the impact of an indeed constant, but permanently changing electrical environment of the distinct conductors to each other; resulting in an electromagnetic huddle, limiting electron flow again.Parallel constructions utilizing parallel running conductors are little resistant against outer interfering fields thus promoting the proximity effect, which as well limits electron flow via emerging eddy current.
To realize a full speed and even electron flow, the electrical parameters and the electromagnetic fields should remain constant and homogeneous across the entire cable length.
The requirement of a mechanically stable design is often underrated, although this is an important factor in order to adhere to constant conditions.
(Example: current flow and in addition the sound energy within the room stimulate micro vibrations of the distinct cable leads, thus constantly changing spacing and electromagnetic fields. Additionally these micro vibrations induce resonances of the crystalline structure, thus distorting information.)
Mechanical stability is a mostly underrated factor of braided constructions, as the space between the conductors tolerates vibrations.
SCHNERZINGER employs a revolutionary technology to gain the benefits of close-mesh interlaced constructions without restrictions and not accepting electromagnetic problems:
BETTER GEOMETRY GEOMETRY utilizes a high tech technique, to directly absorb electromagnetic pollution. This method enables SCHNERZINGER to virtually disregard electromagnetic problems.
BETTER GEOMETRY is complemented with the technique VYBRA STOP AND RESONANCE CONTROL:
BETTER GEOMETRY wird ergänzt durch die Techniken VYBRA STOP UND RESONANCE CONTROL:
SHIELDING – antennas for high frequency interfering fields
Shielding from copper-, aluminum-, silver - meshwork, -foils or particles represent an easy and common method of interference suppression. Shielding meshwork, foils or particles coated cable protect the cable conductor from outer interfering fields; but in the test runs these cables act like antennas, almost attracting high frequency fields. These fields in turn radiate into the equipment and the environment. Particularly in high frequency charged zones (WLAN, mobile phone, DECT phone etc.) this may impair electron flow and limit the achievable performance potential. We think that this compromise afflicted approach is the reason for the intense discussions pro and contra shielded cables.
From our findings it’s crucial to separate outer interfering fields that radiate through the in house power system, and inner interfering fields, caused by the equipment itself. Intermixture of outer and inner interfering fields induces highly complex interferences, badly damaging the performance potential. Therefore it is important to have an efficient system to separate outer and inner interfering fields, so that intermixture will be effectively inhibited.
The solution: GIGA-CANCELING – Innovative Interfering Field Elimination
The operating principle and efficiency of SCHNERZINGER GIGA CANCELING PROTECTOR technology are unique. Sound-damaging interfering fields are eliminated directly within the cable itself and throughout its surroundings, without slowing down electron flow at all. Thus the aforementioned benefits of an extremely fast, high-bandwidth conductor can be fully exploited without any adverse effects.
The symbiosis of SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING and GIGA CANCELING technologies is exceptional, and the performance effects are astonishing. This leads to a comprehensive system which trounces all previous standards in all important sound-related aspects, redefining audiophile parameters in terms of resolution, dynamics, spatial representation and natural tonality.
SCHNERZINGER GIGA CANCELING technology is implemented in the entire PROTECTOR product family.
CABLE COATING – static problem catcher
Many manufacturers put synthetic fabric tube as cable coating. It looks chic, is cheap, and makes production easy. But it’s a fact that cable coating definitely has its impact on cable performance.
With synthetics static charging for example may occur, which interferes with electron transport. As a so-called “tuning method” antistatic means are offered as an accessory, to counteract the shortcomings of these materials. Therefore we almost entirely dispense with synthetic fabric tube, which gives a professional look, but according to our belief should not be part of a forceful design process.
In the design process SCHNERZINGER tested many materials to be considered as cable coating; for example various synthetics – best polyethylene, unbleached cotton, various species of silk, carbon and many others.
SCHNERZINGER employs an industrial meshwork, which scores outstanding performance after a particular tempering.
WIRE WIDTH – the optimal
The key to a fine device or a fine audio connection is the synchronistic signal transmission of all frequencies. From our experience unequal wire width with their unequal electric resistance values lead to unequal transmission speeds, thus impairing an even transport of all frequencies. This is elementary for a phase stable, realistic transmission.
Clever used, the transmission may be optimized for distinct frequency ranges this way. Tonality may even be shifted in a desired direction. Thus deficiencies may be suppressed and covered.
With unequal wire width the treble range may be empathized. To a rather unpracticed listener such a cable will seem to be more detailed and higher resolving. In an immediately subsequent comparison, a neutral cable at first will sound dull and less open. This effect happens, because our ear very fast gets accustomed to high tones whereas the way back works much slower. A manufacturer may utilize this effect, as comparison and sale of a particular product will generally happen via switching back and forth between several products to be considered. During longer listening this unnatural emphasis will be the crux of the matter, which will remove the listener’s contentment, even if only subconscious.
From our experience the performance of a really fine reproduction system is tonal unspectacular but rhythmically enthralling. The absence of unnatural emphasis is the best qualification for a long-term and truly satisfying listening experience.
HEAT PROCESSES – the problem
In Versuchsreihen erhitzten wir das Leitermaterial mit den verschiedensten Parametern, um die Materialstruktur positiv zu beeinflussen. Dies war nach unseren Erfahrungen jedoch nicht uneingeschränkt und anhaltend von Vorteil, da bei der Herstellung von hochwertigen Audiodrähten eine möglichst reine, sauerstofffreie Materialstruktur angestrebt wird. Ein Erhitzen an der Luft führt jedoch wiederum zu verunreinigenden Sauerstoffeinschlüssen und begünstigt Oxidationsprozesse.Weitere Versuche in Sauerstoff ausschließender Umgebung verbesserten die Ergebnisse, jedoch schienen die positiven Auswirkungen begrenzt, nicht anhaltend oder zum Teil sogar kontraproduktiv.
Another insight, leading to the manufacturing process SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING.
MECHANICAL JOINING - The barrier
The right connection method is important.
In case of a cheap and easy to build solder joint the signal always has to struggle to pass through a „sound ruinous“ solder layer (even when using high percentage silver solder, whose silver rate is generally not higher than 5-10% though), which inevitably constitutes a barrier between plug connection and cable conductor.
Cold- resp. spot-welding are better alternatives, but affect material structure in turn. From our experience laser beam welding in vacuum is more appropriate, as plug and conductor material can be gently connected accurately dosed and without impureness. On one hand the enormous cost of this equipment and on the other hand the material specific dosage are problematic.
Our experience shows that especially for connections with very low current ratings (e. g. phono), substandard connections considerably limit the performance potential.
LAQUER-INSULATED CONDUCTOR - the foul compromise
Lacquer isolated wire can be manufactured industrially and quite reasonable. However the coated lacquer doesn’t conform to our standards for a good dielectric medium. Moreover industrial lacquer coatings prove to be applied uneven in practice. These inhomogeneities in turn interfere with signal transport.
In particular the area of power feed causes significant performance impairment, because
A: the interfering fields penetrating from the urban grid and from the in-house grid (computer, refrigerator, etc.)
B: the interfering fields caused by the distinct audio devices itself (transformer, switching power supplies etc.) and
C: the potential equalization currents generated by the grounding of the audio equipment, and
D: the high frequency interfering fields radiated from the environment by the antenna function of the power cords into the audio equipment (WLAN, mobile phones, etc.)
mix within the power strip / power distribution unit and flow back and distribute in complex form through the power and signal cords to the devices, limiting the transmission quality to the highest degree.
Mixing and distribution of the electrical interfering fields to all devices is the technical background, why the “last meter” of the power cords incl. the power strip is so crucial. Therefore an integrated and adjusted overall system is essential.
Providing the INNOVATOR or OPERATOR resp., the POWER CORDS and the CABLE PROTECTION, SCHNERZINGER® offers an integrated high tech overall system, ensuring that within a continuous SCHNERZINGER® cabled power system interferences will not be passed between the distinct devices; a significant prerequisite, because without it the superiority of the SCHNERZINGER® power products will be significantly reduced.
This system will be supported by the SCHNERZINGER® PROTECTOR technology for power, Hi-Fi devices and room, which protects the audio system
- from outer interfering fields,
- from inner self-induced interfering fields and
- from outer environment induced interfering fields.
The impairments through electrical and electromagnetic interferences are severe and may have the following effects:
GIGA CANCELING technology operates with extreme bandwidth and speed. Products that generally limit or mitigate bandwidth and speed may limit the effectiveness of GIGA-PULSE technology.
One of the challenges in developing GIGA PULSE technology was the unrestricted functionality of radio-controlled devices. We know of no case in which the functionality of a radio-operated device is no longer guaranteed.
In a nutshell, the SCHNERZINGER GIGA CANCELING technology eliminates sound-damaging electrical interfering fields with the help of scientifically recognized physics, whereas atmospheric informing applications make use of supernatural energetic aspects.
Energetically informed atmospheric electrosmog products function by depositing and storing so-called energetic information on suitable storable substrates such as precious and semi-precious stones, glass bodies or chips provided with a suitable backing layer (energy cells). The backing materials then release the stored energetic information to the environment.
Since the informing application merely overlaps and does not eliminate electrical interfering fields, the effects are limited and, above all, not only positive in the long term. Because by informing the backing materials are activated, they not only release stored information, but also significantly attract and store information from the environment. As a result of the activation, a mixture of deposited and attracted information is released to the environment. The stronger the informing and the greater the storage capacity of the backing materials, the stronger is the attraction effect.
In the long run this has considerable consequences. Because the attraction effect is not controllable or filterable, harmful information is also attracted, stored, and released back to the environment over time (namely significantly intensified by activation).
Negative information should have no harmful effect on the environment and the sound, therefore the informed materials should be cleaned regularly (preferably daily). This ensures that only the desired positive source information remains on the backing materials.
E.g. in the audio domain, after a successful cleaning process of the informed products the sonic effects are much more effective again.
The cleaning is done under running, not standing water, sunlight or changing magnetic fields.
The following rule of thumb applies: the larger and purer the amount of water, the more intense the sunlight and the stronger the changing magnetic field, the more intense the cleaning effect. The longer the information is stored on the backing material, the more complicated is a complete cleaning process. Every cleaning process of informed materials should be individually customized, because too intensive a cleaning process also deletes the informed source information, whereas a too low one does not adequately eliminate the harmful information.
Another point to consider is, that energetic products from different suppliers often collide, causing the effects to be counterproductive or to decrease over time.For these reasons, the use of atmospheric, energetically informed electrosmog products should be well considered.
Precious and semiprecious stones, rock crystals, rose quartz, tourmaline etc. strongly emanate natural energetic information due to their high storage capacity and hundreds of years of gathering of natural energy. In addition, these rocks have a cleansing effect that ensures that information from the environment does not mix with their natural information. To preserve their energetic properties, however, these rocks require a regular short charge in nature. Because of these positive properties, they are often used in curative care.
It is critical, however, when precious and semi-precious stones, rock crystals, rose quartz, tourmaline, etc. are used for informing processes. Although their high storage capacity is ideal to deposit artificially generated information; informing leads to a mixture of existing natural energetic information and artificially generated information.
Furthermore, the activation triggered by the informing process ensures that the cleaning effect does no longer work adequately and that from now on these rocks must be cleaned elaborately and regularly in ever shorter intervals.
The LEDs used at SCHNERZINGER have an additional interference elimination function against radio waves. If you cover them, their efficiency is merely reduced.
It is often misunderstood, but static charging does not belong to the informing area. From sound aspects static charge should absolutely be considered in the audio sector.
Static charge creates an electric field that may affect signal flow. Therefore, everything in the vicinity of the audio system (devices, cables, speakers, furniture, etc.) should be statically discharged on a regular basis. This is best done by rubbing the surfaces with a damp cloth or good antistatic agents.
We only use high quality LEDs from well-known manufacturers. Their durability is stated as approx. 100,000 hours. This would correspond to a continuous operation of more than 10 years and is therefore in no way comparable with the durability of usual LED lamps.
The life of the LEDs is significantly extended if they are switched off when the hi-fi system is not in use. Mostly it will suffice to set the corresponding switch to adjust the power level of the protector to base setting 0.
Overview Information Sheet Application Area for PROTECTORS & GUARDS
Schnerzinger GmbH & Co KGHeinrich-Sträter Str. 1544229 Dortmund
ContactTelefon: +49 (231) 133 850-15Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The BETTER SKIN technology ensures an almost uniform flow of all frequencies due to the special surface coating within the SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING process, thus combining the advantages of different designs without accepting their disadvantages.
SKIN EFFEKT- Frequency-dependent signal transport in the conductor
An important sound-relevant factor is the so-called skin effect. This can be explained in a very simplified way as follows: High frequencies flow near the surface, medium and low frequencies are oriented more towards the center of the conductor.
A performance displaced to higher frequencies may be perceived – as mentioned above – as more dynamic and three-dimensional and having higher resolution, but from our experience this is accountable for the so-called hyper hi-fi sound; soon the listener will be stimulated to yet another compensating action and so forth.
SCHNERZINGER uses a special, air-filled material as dielectric, which - unlike PTFE or Teflon, for example - is applied to the wire while avoiding structurally damaging temperatures and yet is completely stable. Combined with the special SCHNERZINGER process of DIELECTRIC CHARGING, it shows better dielectric and sound properties than pure PTFE, FEP, cotton, linen, silk or even air. In addition, it is absolutely leak-proof and thus offers reliable long-term protection of the conductors against oxidation....
To prevent electrical short circuits between the wires, they must be insulated. The insulation material, also called dielectric, has an enormous influence on the transmission quality of audio cables. Pure air is theoretically the best dielectric, but it does not insulate. However, in the case of cables marketed in the audio sector with air or AIR insulation, for example, the individual conductor wires are provided with an insulating layer of varnish, which has significantly poorer dielectric values than PTFE, for example. In addition, this insulating layer is often applied using structurally damaging high-temperature processes, which often negatively affect the quality of the conductor's material structure. This is clearly not the case with SCHNERZINGER.
However, the contradiction between high insulation on the one hand and lowest storage capacity on the other hand could not be solved so satisfactorily with any of these approaches that it did not lead to a limitation of the performance potential of the SCHNERZINGER SIGNAL CONDUCTOR.
To better illustrate this sound-degrading memory effect, one can imagine that the individual signals flowing through a wire are attracted to the dielectric, "park" there, and are carried away again by subsequent signals.
The production process of the DIELECTRIC CHARGING works quasi directly against the memory effect and thus ensures a timely and unrestrained signal flow, which is essential for an unimpaired playback quality. Even wires operated without dielectric, i.e. surrounded by pure air, were at a disadvantage sonically compared to DIELECTRIC CHARGING!
For a simple understanding of DIELECTRIC CHARGING, you can imagine a road with many intersections:
It is not by improving the road surface, but by reducing the number of intersections that one achieves significant progress toward unimpeded traffic flow.
In contrast to the often only temporarily effective advantages of established treatment and manufacturing processes on the reproduction quality of high-quality audio cables, e.g. cryogenization or OCC or UPOCC casting processes, SCHNERZINGER cables with ATOMIC BONDING conductors enable an audibly purer and unrivaled true-to-life signal transmission - and this permanently!
In order to recognize the essential advantage of the SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING technology compared to conventional methods, some background knowledge about the industrial processing of wires used as conductor material in the audio sector is required:
CONVENTIONAL CASTING METHODS:
INNOVATIVE APPROACH WITH ATOMIC BONDING:
SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING, on the other hand, takes a completely different approach:
A compacted, fused mass of ice has a closed, extremely stable structure - without any gaps. This fact forms the basis for a highly pure and perfect impulse chain - for a true-to-life signal transmission.
Each SCHNERZINGER cable is designed to provide unique and effective protection of the signal against both low-frequency and high-frequency interference - without reducing the signal bandwidth and signal speed in the slightest - with its BIDIRECTIONAL BARRIER.
By foregoing the use of compromising dummy solutions such as capacitors, diodes, parallel or series filters, which are often used in common market solutions, SCHNERZINGER CABLES transport the audio signal with breathtaking and hitherto unattained authenticity and information density. Electronic braking and carry-over effects are reduced to a maximum, the bad influence of high-frequency interference fields on the quality of the reproduction is effectively prevented.
The double interference field protection of the BIDIRECTIONAL BARRIER blocks and stops
The BIDIRECTIONAL BARRIER enables for the first time a truly contemporary, highly effective interference field protection for the sound information transported in the cable. The pure and unaltered transmission of the signal results in significantly better dynamics, resolution, rhythm and fine detail.
The full sound potential of the hi-fi components is preserved and the quality and performance of the music system can unfold 100%.
In case of very strong interference field loads, the effectiveness of the BIDIRECTIONAL BARRIER can be increased for the cables of the TS-LINE and the RESOLUTION LINE for the cleaning of external interference fields by an optional power amplifier, the CABLE PROTECTOR
For the RESOLUTION LINE, SCHNERZINGER also offers the optional SIGNAL PROTECTOR, an effective power amplifier for diverting the internal interference fields that have penetrated the signal path to the outside.
In order to take full advantage of close-meshed interlocking constructions - without accepting their electromagnetic problems - SCHNERZINGER relies on a combination of intelligent superstructures and revolutionary technologies.
GEOMETRY - twisting, interlacing or parallel cable constructions
The design of a cable must be mechanically stable, create a homogeneous electromagnetic field between and around the conductors, and ensure the time-correct, and loss-free signal flow.
Efforts to use elaborate stranding and braiding techniques to counteract the problems of mutual interference often fail.
Twisted constructions reduce the susceptibility to interference, and typically result in a low inductance, which is usually targeted. However, as soon as current flows through a wire, its own electromagnetic field is generated. If the cores are twisted, the electromagnetic fields of the individual wires are close together over a large area, acting on each other and impairing the flow of electrons, which is why solid conductors are often used instead of stranded wires.
Braided constructions also typically reduce susceptibility to interference, but accept the effects of a constant but permanent change in the electrical environment of the individual conductors relative to each other, and it is this that leads to electromagnetic clutter, which in turn affects electron flow.
Parallel constructions with conductors running in parallel are not very resistant to external interference fields and favor the proximity effect, which also impairs the flow of electrons due to eddy currents that are generated.
In order to take full advantage of close-meshed interlocking constructions without accepting their electromagnetic problems, SCHNERZINGER relies on a combination of intelligent superstructures and revolutionary technology:
BETTER GEOMETRY uses a high-tech process to directly absorb electrosmog and virtually neglect resulting electromagnetic problems.
Plastic fabric hoses are used by many manufacturers as outer sheathing. They look fancy, are inexpensive, and make manufacturing easier. But the fact is that the outer jacket definitely affects the sound quality of a cable.Bei Kunststoffen z.B. können statische Aufladungen entstehen, die den Elektronentransport beeinträchtigen.
As a so-called "tuning measure", antistatic agents are then often offered as accessories to counteract the inadequacies of these materials.
We therefore deliberately dispense almost entirely with plastic fabric tubes, which may make a cable appear professionally manufactured, but in our opinion do not belong in a sonically consistent development chain.
The BETTER FLOW principle, through the extraordinary quality of the SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING conductor material and the consistent use of the highest quality bonding techniques and components, plays a major role in ensuring the unique reproduction quality and special features of SCHNERZINGER CABLES.
CONDUCTOR MATERIAL GRADE
The SCHNERZINGER ATOMIC BONDING conductor material minimizes these sound-influencing effects by providing a permanently compact and enormously homogeneous microstructure of the conductor.
CONNECTOR - COMPONENTS, MATERIAL
Our research shows, that the parts performance potential is primarily determined by the crystalline structure of the deployed material rather than by the material itself. Performance deficits because of a non-optimum crystalline material structure of a connector plug may be compensated via clever actions.With many connector plugs in the audio domain a layer of gold, silver, rhodium, palladium etc. will be added to the conducting material. This improves electrical contact and - via the distinct character of the particular plating - it furthermore allows for compensation of deficits.